Monday, February 19, 2007

Materials of the Teheran conference

(from Russian)

(on 28 November - on 1 December, 1943)

Stalin. If it is possible, then I would want to obtain the answer to a question about that, who will be appointed as the commander of Operation Overlord.

Roosevelt. This question is not yet resolved.

Stalin. Then nothing it leaves the Operation Overlord. Who bears moral and military responsibility for preparation and fulfillment of Operation Overlord? If this is unknown, then Operation Overlord is only conversation.

Roosevelt. English General Morgan bears responsibility for preparation for Operation Overlord.

Stalin. Who bears responsibility for conducting of Operation Overlord?

Roosevelt. All persons, who will participate in the realization of Operation Overlord, with exception of the commander-in-chief of this operation, are known to us.

Stalin. It can happen so that General Morgan will consider the operation of that prepared, on afterward the designations of commander, whom it will answer for the realization of this operation, it can seem that the commander will consider the operation of that not prepared. Must be one person, who would answer both for the preparation and for conducting of operation.

Churchill. Preliminary preparations were charged to General Morgan.

Stalin. Who did charge this to General Morgan?

Churchill. Several months ago this was charged to General Morgan by the united Anglo-American staff from the agreement of the President and from my agreement. To General Morgan it was charged to news preparation for Operation Overlord together with the American and British staffs; however, commander-in-chief is not yet assigned.

The British Government expressed the readiness to place its forces in Operation Overlord under the command of American commander-in-chief, since the United States bear responsibility for concentration and completion search and have numerical superiority in the troops. From other side, the British Government proposed to appoint British commander-in-chief of operations in the Mediterranean, where the Englishmen have numerical superiority in the troops.

A question about the designation of commander-in-chief cannot be solved at this extensive session as today's. This question should be solved by the heads of three governments between themselves, in the narrow to circle. As the President said to me now - and 4 this podtverzhdayu, - resolution of a question about the designation of commander-in-chief will depend on the negotiations, which we conduct here.

Stalin. I want so that they would understand me that the Russians do not pretend to the participation in the designation of commander-in-chief, but Russians would want to know, who will be commander. Russians would want so that it would be rather assigned and so that it would answer both for the preparation and for conducting of Operation Overlord.

Churchill.We are completely agreeable with the fact that Marshal Stalin said, and I think that the President will agree with me in the fact that in two weeks we will appoint commander-in-chief and will report his surname. One of our tasks is the designation of commander-in-chief.

Churchill. It seems to me that we do not disperse in the views as, as this it can seem. I am ready to do everything that in the forces of the British Government, in order to accomplish Operation Overlord within the nearest possible period. But 4 I do not think that those many possibilities, which are located in the Mediterranean, must be unmercifully rejected as the not having values, because their use will detain the realization of Operation Overlord for 2--3 months.

Stalin. Operations in the area of the Mediterranean, about which speaks Churchill, this only of diversion. 4 I do not deny the value of these diversions.

Churchill. In our opinion, numerous British troops must not be located in the idleness in the course of six months. They must conduct combat against the enemy, and with the aid of the American allies we hope to destroy German divisions in Italy. We cannot remain passive in Italy, since this will spoil entire our campaign there. We must render aid to our Russian friends.

Stalin. It leaves according to Churchill, that the Russians require of the Englishmen of that so that the Englishmen would be inactive.

Churchill. If vessels are sent from the area of the Mediterranean, then as a result the scale of operations in this region will considerably be reduced. Marshal Stalin remembers the fact that at the Moscow conference were indicated the conditions, with which Operation Overlord can be successful. These conditions they provide that in France will find up to the moment of intrusion not more than 12 German mobile divisions and that during 60 days the Germans cannot move into France for completing of their troops more than 15 divisions...

Finally, I consider it acceptable and on behalf of the British Government I give agreement to that so that the directives for the military commission would be manufactured. I propose so that we together with the Americans would develop our proposals about the directives of commission. I think that our views more or less converge.

Stalin. How long we are intended to remain in Teheran?

Churchill. I am ready not to eat, unless these directives are developed.

Stalin. The discussion deals with that, when we are intended to finish our conference.

Roosevelt. I am ready to be remain in Teheran as long as Marshal Stalin is to remain in Teheran.

Churchill. If it is necessary, then I am ready to remain in Teheran forever.

... Roosevelt. I want to say several words. In my opinion if we three together give the directives of our military commission, then they will be able to discuss all questions.

Stalin. It is necessary for no military commission. We can solve all questions here, at the conference. We must solve a question about the date, about the commander-in-chief and a question about the need for auxiliary operation in South France. I think also that the commission, which consists of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and representative, appointed as the President, on questions of the Balkans also is not necessary, since all questions about the Balkans we can solve here more rapid. We, Russians, are limited by the period of a stay in Teheran. We could stay here during 1 December, but on the 2nd - GO we must leave. The President remembers about the fact that we agreed with it about 3-4 days.

... Roosevelt. To us by all it is known that the differences between us and Englishmen are small. I object to the postponement of Operation Overlord, while Mr. Churchill more greatly emphasizes the importance of operations in the Mediterranean. Military commission could be dismantled at these questions.

Stalin. We can solve these questions themselves, since we greater have rights, than military commission. If it is possible to pose a careless question, then I would want to learn if the Englishmen, do they believe in Operation Overlord, or they simply speak about it in order to calm down Russians.

Churchill. If the conditions are present, which were indicated at the Moscow conference, then 4 they are solidly convinced of the fact that we will be obligated to move all ime­yushchiyesya [available] forces against the Germans, when the realization of Operation Overlord begins.

Roosevelt. We are very hungry now. Therefore I would propose to interrupt our session in order to be present at that dinner, by which we today entertain Marshal Stalin. I propose so that tomorrow in the morning our military commission would continue its conference.

Stalin. The conferences of military commission does not be required. This excess. The conference of servicemen will not accelerate our work. We can accelerate our work only themselves.

Churchill. If possible, is it better for me and the President to agree on thier point of view and then to report to you about our common point of sight?

Stalin. This will accelerate our work.

Churchill. But as about the commission in the composition of Hopkins and two Minister of Foreign Affairs?

Stalin. And this commission it is not necessary, if Mr. Churchill insists, then we do not object to its creation.

Roosevelt. Tomorrow Hopkins, Molotov and Eden could have a conversation with each other after the breakfast.

Stalin. What we will make tomorrow? Will the proposals of Churchill and Roosevelt be ready?

Roosevelt. The proposals will be finished, and I propose tomorrow to me, to Churchill and to Marshal Stalin to breakfast in half of the second and to discuss all questions.

Churchill. This will be our program on tomorrow.

Stalin. It is agreeable.

№'y from the record of the third session of the Heads of Government

Teheran, on 30 November, 1943

Beginning 16 hours. 30 min. End 17 hours. 20 min.

... Roosevelt. I am very glad to hear, that Marshal Stalin agreed to remain on one more day. I still wanted to say relative to the communiqué: it can be, our staffs could present to us the project of this communiqué.

Stalin. In that part, which concerns military questions.

Churchill. Yes, certainly. It is necessary that the communiqué would be brief and mysterious.

Stalin. But without the mysticism.

Churchill. I am confident, that in the very near future the enemy must become known about our preparations, since it will be able to reveal this from the large accumulation of trains, on the activity in our ports, etc.

Stalin. Large operation in the bag you will not hide.

Churchill. It would be necessary so that our staffs would think about disguising of these preparations and leading enemy into error.

Stalin. We in such cases deceive enemy, systems the dummy tanks, aircraft, creating decoy airfields. Then we with the aid of the tractors set these dummy tanks and aircraft into the motion. Reconnaissance reports to enemy about these movements, the Germans thinking that the impact precisely in this place is prepared. At the same time, where actually is prepared offensive, reigns complete calmness. All transportation are produced by night. We create in a number of places to 5--8 thousand dummy tanks, to 2 thousand aircraft scale models, the large number of decoy airfields. Furthermore, we deceive enemy with the aid of the radio. In those regions, where is not assumed offensive, is produced the roll-call between the radio stations. These stations are intersected by enemy, and in it impression will be created, that here are located the large connections of troops. The aircraft of enemy sometimes day and night bombard these localities, which in actuality are completely empty.

Churchill. Truth is necessary to guard via untruth. In any case, will be accepted the measures, in order to lead enemy into error.

№ 63 memorandum of the conversation I. V. Stalin with F. Roosevelt
1 December 1943 15 hours. 20 min.

Roosevelt. In the United States a question about the start of Baltic republics in the Soviet Union can be raised, and I assume that the world public opinion will consider it desirable so that sometimes in the future in a some manner expressed the opinion of the peoples of these republics on this question. Therefore I hope that Marshal Stalin will take into the attention this wish. I personally do not have any doubts about the fact that the peoples of these countries will vote for the connection to the Soviet Union so harmoniously, as they made in 1940.

Stalin. Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia did not have an autonomy before the revolution in Russia. Tsar was then in the union with the United States and with England, and no one raised the question about the conclusion of these countries from the composition of Russia. Why this question is placed now?

Roosevelt. The fact is that public opinion does not know history. I would want to have a talk with Marshal Stalin about the home situation in the United States. Next year in the United States elections will be in prospect. I do not desire to advance my candidacy, but if war is continued, then perhaps I will be since I am forced to make this decision. In America there are millions of citizens of Polish origin, and therefore, being a practical person, I would not want to lose their concerns. I am agreeable with Marshal Stalin to the fact that we must restore the Polish state, and personally I do not have objections to the borders of Poland being moved from the east to the West - up to Oder, but for political reasons I cannot participate at present in the resolution of this question. I consider Marshal Stalin's ideas, I hope that he will understand, why I cannot publicly participate in resolution of this question here, in Teheran, or even in the spring of next year.

Stalin. After the explanation of Roosevelt this I understand.

Roosevelt. In the United States there is also a certain quantity of Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians. I know that Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia and in the past and very recently composed the part of the Soviet Union, and, when the Russian armies again enter into these republics, not to camp for war because of this with the Soviet Union. But public opinion can require conducting there a plebiscite.

Stalin. As far as voleiz"yavleniya of the peoples of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia is concerned, we have numerous cases to give to the peoples of these republics the possibility to express its will.

Roosevelt. This will be to me usefully.

Stalin. This, of course, it does not mean that the plebiscite in these republics must pass under any form of international control.

Roosevelt. Certainly, no. It would be useful to state at the appropriate moment, that the selections take place in their time in these republics.

Stalin. Certainly, this can be will be made. I would want to know, was resolved finally a question about the departure tomorrow.

Roosevelt. They reported to me that there will tomorrow be the blagopri­yatnaya weather. it remained a little the questions, which we can discuss this evening. Tomorrow in the morning I will intend to depart...

Source: Teheran conference of the leaders of three union powers - USSR, THE USA and Great Britain. M., 1978. S. 123 - 169.
OCR, working and the formulation: Mikhail koval'chuk velikiye are the lords of the past
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